Fakulteta za elektrotehniko  
  Faculty of Electrical Engineering :: Laboratory of Biocybernetics :: Research :: Electroporation slovensko

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An exposure of a cell to an electric field of an adequate strength and duration leads to a transient increase of cell membrane permeability. This phenomenon, termed electroporation or electropermeabilization, allows various otherwise nonpermeant molecules to cross the membrane and enter the cell. Both in vitro and in vivo, reversible electroporation allows for internalization of a wide range of substances, including chemotherapeutics and DNA. A combination of electroporation and a chemotherapeutic drug (electrochemotherapy) leads to a significant increase of the antitumor effect of the drug. Electroporation also provides a reliable nonviral method of DNA internalization (electrogene transfection), characterized by a stable gene expression in vivo, and thereby representing a safer alternative to viral vectors.

In our laboratory we are also investigating the role of experimental conditions, particularly the parameters of electric pulses, on the efficiency of electroporation. We are studying this through experiments, as well as through theoretical modeling of electroporation and transport through the electroporated membrane.


  1. Macek-Lebar A, Kopitar NA, Ihan A, Sersa G, Miklavcic D. Significance of treatment energy in cell electropermeabilization. Electro. Magnetobiol. 17: 255-262, 1998. [PDF]
  2. Pucihar G, Kotnik T, Kanduser M, Miklavcic D. The influence of medium conductivity on electropermeabilization and survival of cells in vitro. Bioelectrochemistry 54: 107-115, 2001. [PDF]
  3. Pucihar G, Mir LM, Miklavcic D. The effect of pulse repetition frequency on the uptake into electropermeabilized cells in vitro with possible applications in electrochemotherapy. Bioelectrochemistry 57: 167-172, 2002. [PDF]
  4. Kotnik T, Pucihar G, Rebersek M, Mir LM, Miklavcic D. Role of pulse shape in cell membrane electropermeabilization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1614: 193-200, 2003. [PDF]
  5. Puc M, Kotnik T, Mir LM, Miklavcic D. Quantitative model of small molecules uptake after in vitro cell electropermeabilization. Bioelectrochemistry 60: 1-10, 2003. [PDF]
  6. Miklavcic D, Kotnik T. Electroporation for electrochemotherapy and gene therapy. In Rosch PJ, Markov MS, Bioelectromagnetic Medicine, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004, pp. 637-656. [PDF]


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